Holistic Approaches in Environmental Pollution and Management using Bio Remediation system for...

Holistic Approaches in Environmental Pollution and Management using Bio Remediation system for Sustainable Development

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Abstract: As per the western countries concept, Development of any country always depend on the industrial growth of that nation which is being applied throughout the world. Man’s need is increasing day by day due to civilization and other social and scientific development. Roaming man lived in cave and caves man built the house to safeguard from natural almighty wind, rain, storm and wild animals near the banks of rivers.

The industrial revolution occurred during the 18th century made a sharp rise in industrial growth. At that time society didn’t realize the depletion of natural resources. The development occurred during 19th & 20th centuries forced to use more natural resources such as land, water, minerals, forest and human health. Initially, the industries did two things. One side produced goods for people’s basic and essential needs. At the same time, the limited industrial growth equally produced wastes in the form of the liquid, solid and gaseous. During 18th & 19th century the wastes dumped over the natural resources like river and streams did not spoil the natural resources due to nature’s high carrying capacity. Carrying capacity in environmental aspect is defined as any resources can sustain for future use. But the science and Technological innovations established the new style life and reflected in the growth of lakhs of industries. These industries growth produced goods not only for basic needs but also for production sake. They want to maintain the production for production.

Environmental Issues

The unstopped population growth and discontinuity in Agriculture have led to urbanization. The industrialization can fulfill the needs of the population. For the need of more food production, more inorganic fertilizers, pesticides are being used in Agriculture. Every activity has a link to other activities in the name of development. At the same time, all the activities in one-way or other spoiled the natural resources. The degradation of natural resources occurred within the time space of 50 years. The pollution load being dumped on forest, water, land, flora and fauna, and because of the manmade activities which have created serious environmental problems. The global environment problems such as global warming, Acid rain, Greenhouse Effect, Deforestation and the local environmental problems such as air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, soil erosion etc., are to be managed for the sustainable development at the local level and international level.

Everywhere there is talk about the environmental issues and the management. Every environmental issue has a strong influence on the other. For example in transportation and industries, a number of vehicles and industrial gas emissions lead to air pollution, which causes global warming. The deforestation accelerates the global warming since forest and trees play a crucial role in controlling the climate. So, while planning for development of transportation and industries shall always club more tree plantation, so that the trees may observe more Carbon mono oxide and carbon dioxide is a simple example to understand the environmental planning and managing concept. Because of the development more wastages in the form of liquid, solid and gaseous have generated and become minas to the society. But thirty years back all these wastes were recycled and reused and the remaining unused wastes were disposed of with fewer impacts on the natural resources. For past thirty years lot of technologies has come over to treat the wastes but the wastes could not be treated due to technology gap and financial gap.

Present Technology for waste management

There is a huge number of technologies available for waste management. It depends on solid, liquid and gaseous waste. Normally the following methods are still being adopted for the waste management in India and Tamil Nadu.

– Solid wastes are dumped in open land
– Discharge of wastewater into water bodies
– Discharge of semi treated wastewater in Rivers and Lakes
– Emission of polluted air into atmosphere
– Over application of Chemical fertilizer and pesticides in agriculture lands.
– Oil spillage in ocean thinking that Ocean can tolerate the load
– Degradation of fertile lands.
– Firing of solid wastes
– Providing partial effluent treatment plant.
– Technology involving more Electrical and Mechanical equipments.

These technologies either required more land area or need heavy maintenance charges. So the numerous treatment technologies implemented for the waste management do not pave a conducive atmosphere in waste management streams.

Impacts of the present System

The present treatment methods do not address fully and the results the environment is seriously deteriorated day by day. The resources are either depleted or polluted. People often suffer for want of good water, healthy food, and unpolluted air. When we look into the treatment methods adopted in past time, clearly shows the unscientific approach adopted and the results pollution issues are doubled. Rural people slowly started to migrate to an urban center for want of good life. There is a clear sign that people suffering from poverty are drastically reduced. But these development activities spoiled the natural resources and Environment severely. The encroachments on forest area, fertile lands, and water resources are increasing day by day. After 60 years of independence, thousands of villages expected for their basic needs, such as safe drinking water supply and assured working days. In each five-year plan, it was possible to do something to the rural sector. Due to overutilization of natural resources, the forest area decreased, the ground water level went to very deep, improper waste management damaged the fresh water in the Rivers and lakes and in turn, made us crying for good water resources. All over the world, the present objective of the governance is to full fill the drinking water need.

The industrial wastes in the form of solid, liquid and gaseous are not really controlled even now. The pollution prevention measures are not adequate to safeguard the resources very few sectors really adopting the successful Effluent Treatment Plant. All other units have Effluent Treatment Plant and Common Effluent Treatment Plant just for namesake. These plants not designed for complete control of parameters. The technology adopted during 1990’s in Textile and dyeing units and tannery units were able to remove colour and reduced the BOD and COD but not the TDS. People and the well-educated scientists and technocrats believed this half- hazard treatment systems have solved the pollution issues. In reality, Groundwater and surface water pollution increased and many river basins such as Palar River, Noyyal river and the area near Industrial sector have lost lakhs of acres fertile lands.

This is called, as the end of pipe treatment method will be treated after generation of the huge quantity of wastes. This needs huge investment, energy, and human forces, which equal to running new productive factories. So industrialists naturally do not want to invest more money for Effluent Treatment Plant. The Municipalities and Corporations also don’t want to invent sewage Treatment plants and solid waste management since it warrants huge amount. The un-care attitudes leads to severe deterioration is not realized by the decision making officers, general Publics, and institutions So we need a sustainable technology for all waste management.

Bioremediation Method

Through the average life of Indian is raised to 65 years, the percentage of people suffer from cancer, heart diseases and infertility have increased. The food grains, drinking water, and the breathing air become poisonous, and the results irreversible damage made on the human being, and natural resources.

The very purpose of control of pollution is to provide a healthy life for all living beings. What we need is the right approach that reduces the total pollution to protect the natural resources. Bio Remediation technology emerged in recent time shows good result in waste treatment and in the improvement of the health.

Bioremediation is the application of a biological treatment, mainly microbes, to the cleanup hazardous contaminants in soil and surface or subsurface waters, these microorganisms can be used to transform them to less harmful forms. Bio represents flora and Fauna which are responsible for the existence of this only livable world. So in the treatment process, any Engineering method could be clubbed with using plants and microbes.

The bacteria feed on the contamination, deriving nutrition for growth and for reproduction. Complex chemical reactions occur, but the result of this natural process is that contaminants are used up completely or are converted (or cleaved) into an innocuous product such as water and carbon dioxide. The microbes will survive and consume their contaminant food source until the unwanted pollutant is remediated.

Three critical factors in deciding whether bioremediation is the appropriate method for site remediation are:

Whether or not the contaminants are susceptible, to bioremediation by the organisms at the site (or by organisms that could be successfully added to the site).

Whether or not the contaminants are accessible to the micro-organism (geological considerations may become a factor)

Whether or not any inhibitory environmental conditions exist that may interfere with the growth and reproduction of these microbes.

Though the Bioremediation system exists in past, the wise application has developed in the 21st century only. The bioremediation treatment system is suitable for all kind of waste management. This has to be sometimes clubbed with physical and mechanical treatment system. In general, BIO represents life science which involves Flora and Fauna. From microbes to herbs and shrubs and with some trees waste shall be treated as per the status and need. By utilizing the flora and fauna all waste shall be treated or managed is called as Bio remediation.

The Bioremediation again divided into many aspects such as Bio Engineering, Nano Bio Remediation, Nano Bio Engineering, Bio Ozolyte and Nano Bio Ozolyte system. These various treatment technologies use the microbes as bio products as base components and club with other components such as Ozonization, Ionization and any other suitable mechanical system to convert the wastes into wealth. These Technologies could be used for the following sector

– For treating all domestic solid wastes
– For treating Industrial solid wastes
– For the rejuvenation of degraded lands
– For the treatment domestic and Industrial wastewater.
– For restoration of the polluted rivers and lakes.
– For ocean pollution management,
– For the sustainable agriculture production
– For removal of scales in pipes.
– For the sustainable water and wastewater management

The waste management projects successfully implemented in the various field is explained in detail below.

Successful Case Studies

For any waste management system bioremediation paves the cost effective and flexible method. Solid wastes, wastewater, air pollution and water pollution shall be successfully treated using bioremediation technology. The following projects have been treated with Bioremediation technology and the improved version as Nano Bio remediation and Nano Bio Ozolyte treatment systems.

a. Revival of Katcharli lake at Thane Corporation in Maharashtra State.
b. Revival of ooty and Kodaikanal lake in Tamil Nadu.
c. Reduction of pollution of dye water using HRTS near Tiruppur in Tamil Nadu.
d. Sewage treatment plant at Sulur in Coimbatore district.
e. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant at Salem Corporation
f. Revival and Restoration of Lakes in Tamil Nadu.
I. Mookaneri lake near Salem Corporation
II. Lakes in and around Palani area in Dindigul district
g. Revival of OOTY Lake with Nano Bio Ozolyte STP near Ooty lake
h. Bio Remediation in MSWM and Agriculture sector

Revival of Katchrali lake at Thane Corporation in Maharashtra State.

Katchrali lake is located in Thane Corporation in Maharashtra State. This lakes had serious pollution problem due to mixing of domestic wastewater. The lake water spread area is around 2.0 acres only. The entire water spread area was covered with water hyacinth before taking treatment. The lake was investigated by M/S wockhard company under the guidance of (Minister of Environment and Forest) MoEF during 1998. In 1999 they have started the treatment using bio remediation technology. The following steps of were involved in the treatment.

– Total water hyacinth has completely removed from the lake.
– The inflow of the wastewater has been completely stopped.
– The lake water spread area was treated for one year in the interval of three months using the cultured Microbes as powdered form.
– Periodical water sampling analysis has been done

Inferences:

– Improvement in lake water quality was seen with in five months.
– The Pollution Control Board has studied the treatment process under the guidance of Minister of Environment and Forest and found the treatment was good.
– The total inflow of wastewater has been stopped and only rain water was allowed.

The photo plate 1 shows the Katchrali Lake Treatment

 

Development

 

Revival of Ooty and Kodaikanal lake in Tamil Nadu in the year 2001-2004

Ooty lake is located in Uthkamandalam In Tamil nadu State. This lake also had serious pollution issues due to mixing of domestic wastewater. The lake water spread area is around 25 hectare. The entire water spread area was covered with water hyacinth before taking treatment. The lake was investigated by M/S wockhard company under the guidance of MoEF during 1999- 2000.

But the Comprehensive Detailed Project Report (DPR) for both PWD and TWAD was prepared and submitted to MoEF New Delhi under GOI. The tender was floated and was taken by M/s Aireef Ditoxi a Mumbai based Company. They have started the work during the year 2003-04.

The following steps of were involved in the treatment

– The water hyacinth has completely removed from the lake.
– The lake water spread area was treated for one year in the interval of three months using the microbial powder along with aeration system.
– The Bio product culture as powder form was spread in the Lake area. Every three months once the powder was sprayed.
– Periodical water sampling analysis has been done

Inferences:

– Improvement in lake water quality was seen with in five months.
– The Pollution Control Board has studied the treatment process under the guidance of Minister of Environment and Forest and found the treatment was good.
– Since the total inflow of wastewater has not been stopped fully the lake pollution has started and water hyacinth growth was found.
– Then the weeds were removed regularly. Up to the year 2008-09 the Lake was in good condition.

The photo plate 2 shows the Ooty lake treatment

 

 

Reduction of pollution of dye water using HRTS near Tiruppur in Tamil Nadu.

Green Cover in Kasipalayam CETP area

Kasipalayam common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is located in Tiruppur. The CETP is meant for treating the dyeing effluent. But generally they treat only colour, BOD, and COD. The TDS portions don’t treat under CETP. So the hight TDS water is not useful for the crop cultivation. Hence the Environmental Cell Division and seed range division department of forest, Coimbatore and CETP Kasipalayam unit have implemented the High rate transmission system (HRTS) near Kasipalayam CETP. Though many tree varieties were tried, six varities of tree saplings grown well. The growth after three years have shown in the photo plate 3.

 

 

Sewage treatment plant at Sulur in Coimbatore District

Sulur Big tank lake is located in Coimbatore District in Tamil Nadu State. This lake also polluted due to mixing of domestic wastewater from Sulur Town Panchayat. The lakes water spread area is around 20 acres. The entire water spread area was covered with water hyacinth. The lake was investigated by M/S Public Works Department Coimbatore as the Town Panchayat Sulur has requested during 2003-04. In PWD Water Resources Consolidation Project (WRCP) was implemented in which lot of Environmental issues were identified and Lab level and Field level Pilot scale Projects were proposed. In 2004 the Project Revival of Sulur Big Tank by implementing Cost effective sewage treatment plant using Bio remediation Technology for the cost of Rs 20.00 lakh. The Environmental Cell Division Coimbatore has executed the pilot project with the 25% of funding help from Sulur Town Panchayat. The following steps of were involved in the treatment

– The Treatment plant was constructed.
– The machineries such as electrical Aerators were erected.
– The wastewater was diverted to the treatment plant.
– The treatment plant has three components as Collection tank, Treatment Zone and Settling Zone.
– Periodical water sampling analysis has been done

Inferences:

– Improvement in lake water quality was seen with in five months.
– The evaluation study has been conducted by Department of Civil Engineering, GCT Coimbatore and found the results were as per norms.
– The total inflow of wastewater has been diverted to treatment plant and after treatment the same water was allowed to lake.
– First time in India the wastewater was treated before entry into the lake and so PWD EC Division is established as Pioneer in the lake treatment.

The photo plate 4 shows the Sulur sewage treatment plant

 

 

Slaughter house waste water treatment plant at Salem Corporation

Salem Corporation has constructed a modern slaughter house at Meyyanur in Salem Corporation. By searching many technologies they have selected the Bio Ozolyte treatment system for treating the slaughter house waste water.

Concept of Bio Ozolyte

The waste water has more BOD,COD,TSS. COLOUR & ODOUR. The Bio ozolyte system is combination of three technologies.

– It has advantages over conventional technologies like ASP, TF & UASBR. The BOD and COD reduction shall be done through biological system by adding the microbes in waste water along with electrical aeration.
– Then the waste water is treated through ozone tank where ozone is generated at onsite and injected in the water. Here the residual BOD & COD shall be reduced.
– The COLOUR and ODOUR also shall be removed in ozone tank.
– Then the waste water shall be treated with Russian’s Anolyte liquid by mixing 0.1% of Liquid. After one hour the residual Colour and Odour shall be totally removed.

Based on the above system the slaughter house waste water treatment plant was designed and executed. The results obtained were satisfied the PCB norms.

The photo plate 5 shows the Salem slaughterhouse treatment plant

 

 

Revival and Restoration of Lakes in Tamil Nadu

In Tamil Nadu 14000 Tanks (Lakes) are still in use which are under Tamil Nadu Water Resources Department (TNWRD) control. For restoration and Revival of these lakes GOTN has sought out funds from various agencies. Similarly Non Governmental Organization( NGO) also do the Restoration of Lake works with their own interest. Here the following two works execute by a NGO and by TNWRD is highlighted below.

Mookanery lake near Salem Corporation

Green Cover in Urban Tanks

Mookanery lake is situated at Kaanankuruchi near Salem Corporation. The Tank has around 150 acres water spread area.Since the ayacut area of this tank has converted in to urbanization the Tank water is not useful for irrigation. Normally all urban lakes are being used as dumping yard of urban solid wastes. Her also the Mookanery lake located in Kaanakuruchi Town panchayat has become sink of the city.

But the Salem Citizens group originated by Mr. Piyush and his friends has taken challenging works of desilting and cleaning of lakes. Normally when any Tanks are desilted the major cost shall go for transportation of silts. So they have decided to form ISLANDS in side the water spread of lake with the support of Water Resources Department PWD and Corporation of Salem so that the cost could be reduced. They have formed 50 nos Islands and planted tree saplings on Islands. The trees have grown well after the monsoon. The trees have become home for the aquatic life and the Tank Bio diversity has improved now. Instead of Engineering Process they converted into Bio Engineering process.

Now it has become under success programme list. The Environmental Cell Division Coimbatore has published in the newsletter Stream & Neerodai and now the Engineers from the Chief Engineer Plan Formulation Chennai have also visited the lake. They have a idea of extending the same kind of projects throughout Tamil Nadu. Almost these photos have shown in more than 3000 Seminars and workshops.

The photo plate 6 shows the Bio Engineering treatment system in Mookanery lake.

 

 

Lakes in and around Palani area in Dindigul district

Revival of lakes works have been carried out all over Tamil Nadu under IAMWARM project with World Bank (WB) fund between the year 2007 to 2014. Under this project the lakes components such as repair of weirs, sluices, strengthening and widening of bunds and formation of WUA (Water Users Association) were carried out. During the execution, our Engineers thought to cut the trees standing on the bunds and slope of the bunds. As a Environmental Engineers we have intervened to not to cut the trees since there was no soil erosion and or damage of bunds found in past history. Then it was brought to World Bank and Dr. Malhotra from WB visited the field and given direction not to cut the trees having 30 cm girth. Because of this minor intervention we could have saved 300 palm tree and more than 1000 other trees like banyan and turmeric trees. The tree over the bund is useful for many purposes. It stabilizes the bund. It provides habitat for many birds and those birds are acting as predator in the Agriculture field to control plant eating insects. This holistic system helps us to avoid the chemical insecticides and consequently save our water bodies and ecosystem.

The photo plate 9 shows the Bio Engineering approach to make the Lakes sustainable.

 

 

Revival of OOTY Lake with Nano Bio Ozolyte STP near Ooty lake- 2012-13

The lake was polluted again during 2008-09 due to entry of huge quantity of waste water through Kodappamund Channel Lot of initiatives were under the lake committee headed by District Collector. Collector has sent a team of Engineers to visit Nainital lake in Utterkhand State. After the visit the following steps of action plan was recommended.

The following steps of were involved in the lake treatment

– One 2.00 mld sewage Treatment Plant was proposed using Nano Nualgi Bio Ozolyte treatment system and executed during 2013.
– The silts carry through the Channel has to be stopped for which a serial of Check dam were proposed.
– The lake water spread area has to be treated since the water is polluted severely for which permanent aeration has been recommended during 2013. But the aeration proposal was not approved at that stage and so intermediate cost effective treatment system namely Nano Nualgi system has implemented for one year. It is a liquid sprayed in water spread area for four times year which increases the Dissolved Oxygen level.
– The Nano product culture as powder form has been spread in the Lake area. Every three months once the powder was sprayed.
– Periodical water sampling analysis has been done

Inferences

– Improvement in lake water quality was seen with in three months.
– The Pollution Control Board has studied the treatment process under the guidance of Minister of Environment and Forest and found the treatment was good.
– The D.O level has been improved in the lake in six months.
– The aeration system is now sanctioned for complete aeration and soon will take up by PWD, WRD Ooty subdivision.

The photo plate 7shows the 2 MLD STP and revival of Ooty lake during 2012-13

 

Development

 

Bioremediation in Agriculture sector

Pollution of water bodies happened not only due to discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater and solid wastes but also due to the aggressive spraying of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and dap and urea in the name of Green Revolution in agriculture sector. The impacts of these chemical fertilizers and pesticides spoil the fertile land area, Ground and Surface water resources and human health. Huge number of diseases attack the health of man, animal and flora. So alternative to the present Green Revolution is practice the agriculture without chemical fertilizer and pesticides. This is called as Organic Farming.

By doing organic farming one can produce safe food grains, improve health of soil, harvesting rainwater in the field and above all the input costs have reduced well so that farmers can get benefit from the farming activities. The use of mulching practice helps farmers for soil improvement. Use of Panchakavya from five components of cow. That is by using cow dung, cow urine, cow milk, cow curd and cow ghee panchkavyya has been prepared and shall be used for all crops in all time.

Gana Jeevamirtham, Jeevamirtham, Bio repellant and other kind of Bio medicines are possible to control diseases and fungicide attack. More than thousands farmers are now practicing organic farming which reduces the pollution of land and water. If Urban Solid Waste Management shall be linked to Organic Farming the shortage of organic fertilizers shall be solved

It has many advantages rather than the conventional Green Revolution as mentioned below.

– Firing of agriculture wastes has been stopped
– Reduces the input cost drastically.
– Increases the yield and production
– It harvests the rain water in field
– Water requirement is reduced well to the field.
– Earthworms makes soil very smooth and soften
– Lot of bio repellant are available for control of any diseases and insects
– Balanced production as community basis helps to withstand the market rates.
– Good healthy produces improve the health fo future generations.
– For soil improvement, for controlling diseases and fungous and for control of weeds and insects bio remediation helps lot.
– So able to sustain the agriculture activities.

The photo plate 8. shows the organic farming garden

 

 

Conclusion

For any Pollution control activities Technology Bio Remediation concept such as Bio Engineering,Nano Bio Remediation & Nano Bio Ozolyte Treatment System give good results. These technology simply paves way go with nature or utlize the natural resources that will reduce pollution on one side and easily restore the degradation. Even for the R.O technology Nano bioremediation helpful for good function of membranes. It has multi number of advantages as mentioned below.

– This is very flexible treatment system useful for any kind of solid waste and liquid waste.
– The land requirement is reduced in clubbing with other treatment system
– The maintenance charges are reduced.
– It does not require skilled technicians to handle the plant.
– The design is made to suit to any shape of land
– Running cost is the big problem in treatment plant. But here the running cost and capital cost are reduced considerably.
– It improves the environment and health system of all eco system.
– It paves way for the sustainable development.

Dr. R. Ilangovan, M.E., Phd.
Former, Superintending Engineer, Parambikulam Aliyar Basin Circle,PWD.,WRD Pollachi

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