Impact on Replacement of Natural Sand with Artificial Sand on the Properties...

Impact on Replacement of Natural Sand with Artificial Sand on the Properties of Cement Mortar

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water cement  ratio
Udaya Bhaaskar Bulusu
Director – Projects & Operations
Sanitech Engineers & Consultants Private Limited &
Kinshuk Infra Private Limited

Abstract

The  effect of water cement  ratio on hardened properties of  cement  mortar with partial replacement of natural sand by artificial sand is investigated. Designed mortar mix having proportion as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:6 with water cement ratio of 0.5 and 0.55 respectively is used in experimental study. Mortar cube specimens are tested for evaluation of compressive strength. The mortar exhibits excellent strength with 50% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand. This paper puts forward the applications of artificial sand as an attempt towards sustainable development. It will help to find viable solution to the declining availability of natural sand to make eco-balance.

Introduction

The global consumption of natural sand is very high, due to the extensive use of concrete or mortar. In general, the demand of natural sand is quite high in developing countries to satisfy the rapid infrastructure growth, in this situation developing country like India facing shortage in good quality natural sand. Particularly in India, natural sand deposits are being depleted and causing serious threat to environment as well as the society. Increasing extraction of natural sand from river beds causing many problems, loosing water retaining  sand  strata,  deepening  of  the  river  courses  and  causing  bank  slides,  loss  of vegetation on the bank of rivers, exposing the intake well of water supply schemes, disturbs the aquatic life as well as affecting agriculture due to lowering the underground water table etc  are  few  examples.  Properties of  aggregate  affect  the  durability and  performance of concrete, so fine aggregate is an essential component of concrete and cement mortar. The most commonly used fine aggregate is natural river or pit sand. Fine and coarse aggregate constitute about 75% of total volume. It is therefore, important to obtain right type and good quality aggregate at site, because the aggregate forms the main matrix of concrete or mortar.

Now a day’s sand is becoming a very scarce material, in this situation research began for inexpensive and easily available alternative material to natural sand. Some alternatives materials have already been used as a part of natural sand e.g. fly-ash, slag limestone and siliceous stone powder are used in concrete mixtures as a partial replacement of natural sand. However, scarcity in required quality is the major limitation in some of the above materials. Now a day’s sustainable infrastructural growth demands the alternative material that should satisfy technical requisites of fine aggregate as well as it should be available abundantly.

The effect of high levels of fines content on concrete properties. It has taken a review of the strength and behavior of concrete by using crushed rock dust as fine aggregate, they investigated the possibility of using crushed rock as 100 % replacement for sand, with varying compacting factors. The proportioning concrete mixes with rock dust as fine aggregate. It was also carried detailed investigation on utilization of quarry waste fine aggregate in concrete mixtures. The investigated experimentally the performance of concrete with quarry dust as fine aggregate. The investigated the crushed stone waste as fine aggregate for concrete. It was also carried out the tests on concrete with stone crusher dust as fine aggregate. The investigated on stone dust as fine aggregate in structural concrete. And has studied the substitution of the dune sand by the clay sand (calcined clay) influences appreciably on the water demand necessary to have acceptable workability (Fluidity or consistency) of fresh mortar. Artificial sand offers viable alternative to natural sand and it is purpose made fine aggregate produced by crushing and screening or further processing i.e. washing, grading, classifying of quarried rock, cobbles, boulders or gravels from which natural fine aggregate had been removed. Based on review work is carried out on strength properties of cement mortar with partial replacement of natural sand by manufactures sand. Also strength of cement  mortar is  calculated using different water cement ratios.

Research significance

The main objective of the present work is to systematically study the effect of water  cement ratio and percentage replacement of natural sand by artificial sand as 0.5, 0.55 and 0%, 50% and 100% respectively on the strength propertied of cement mortar. The study is carried out on mortar with proportion 1:2, 1:3 and 1:6 with water cement ratio of 0.5 and 0.55 respectively. Artificial sand can be used as fine aggregate, but it has to satisfy the technical requisites. On this aspect research on cement mortar with artificial sand is scarce, so this paper investigates the cement mortar produced with artificial sand.

Materials

Aggregate:-  Locally  available  river  sand  as  fine  aggregate  (4.75mm  to  75  micron  (0.2  to 0.003 in)) is used. Artificial sand (4.75mm to 75 micron (0.2 to 0.003 in)) is used for partial replacement to natural sand. Natural and artificial sand are from zone II (IS 383). Sieve analysis and material properties are presented in Table 1 and 2 (IS 383 and IS 2386). Cement: – The cement used is 53 grade (Ordinary Portland Cement) (IS 12269).

Experimental Program

The main objective of this experimentation is to find out the effect of replacement of natural sand by artificial sand with 0%, 50% and 100% on hardened properties of cement mortar.  The  experimental  work  includes  the  casting,  curing  and  testing  of  specimens. Material properties are shown in Table 1.Mortar mix is prepared with proportion of 1:2, 1:3 and 1:6 with water cement ratio of 0.5 and 0.55 respectively. Three trials are carried out for each  water  cement  ratio  and  mortar  mix  proportion,  where  Mix  1  is  the  reference  mix  with 0% artificial sand, Mix 2 is with 50% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand and Mix 3 is with 100% artificial sand. All of the experiments are performed in normal room temperature. The mortar ingredients namely cement and fine aggregate first mixed in dry  state.  Artificial sand  is  used  as  a  partial  replacement  to  the  natural  sand  then calculated amount of water is added and mix it thoroughly to get a homogeneous mix. Mortar is poured in the moulds layer by layer and compact thoroughly. Cubes are used for compressive strength test having size 7.06 mm (0.3 in) x7.06 mm (0.3 in) x 7.06 mm (0.3 in) that are cured in water for 28 days and tested at 28 day’s on Universal testing Machine (UTM).

 

 

Results and Discussion

Table 3, table 4 and table 5 gives the test results of cement mortar with proportion of 1:2, 1:3 and 1:6 having water cement ratio as 0.5 and 0.55. Mortar mixes revealed an increase of compressive strength up to 14.53%, 46.95% and 60.62% for proportion of 1:2, 1:3 and 1:6 with water cement ration as 0.5 as result of replacement of artificial sand up to 50% respectively as shown in table 3, table 4, table 5 and figures 1, 2 and 3 respectively. This may be due to the fact that 50% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand may show the optimum reaction with optimum filler capacity. It can be concluded that 50% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand will yield the maximum strengths for cement mortar. In this  study  we  observe  that  the  overall  strength  of  mortar  is  higher  are  compared  with reference mix.

Conclusions

The  effect  of  partial  replacement  of  natural  sand  by  artificial  sand  on  the  compressive strength of cement mortar of proportion 1:2, 1:3 and 1:6 with water cement ration as 0.5 and 0.55 are studied. Results are compared with reference mix of 0% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand. The compressive strength of cement mortar with 50% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand reveals higher strength as compared to reference mix. The overall strength of mortar linearly increases for 0%, 50% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand as  compared with  reference mix  (Mix 1). Artificial sand has a potential to provide alternative to natural sand and helps in maintaining the environment as well as economical balance. Non-availability of natural sand at reasonable cost, forces to search for alternative material. Artificial sand qualifies itself as suitable substitute for river sand at reasonable cost. The artificial sand found to have good gradation and nice finish which is lacking in natural sand and this has been resulted in good cohesive cement mortar.

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