The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to create smart buildings by uniting disparate facility systems into an integrated whole. With the IoT it can be possible to manage and control temperatures, ventilation, lighting, access, parking, room occupancy, elevators and energy usage in a facility, either on-site or remotely. IoT applications sound futuristic but many of them are available now. IoT makes possible a variety of applications using connected devices and data driven decision support systems. The most beneficial of these provide predictive or pre-emptive knowledge of building or facility operating parameters outside the target zone. Using analytics to understand what is happening in a building and then making appropriate corrections is probably the most important advance using IoT and smart building technology. This allows for quick resolution to issues and even makes it possible to take pre-emptive steps to resolve problems before they emerge. The Internet of Things involves an increasing number of smart interconnected devices and sensors (e.g. cameras, biometric and medical sensors) that are often non-intrusive, transparent and invisible. Moreover, as the communication among these devices as well as with related services, is expected to happen anytime, anywhere, it is frequently done in a wireless, autonomic and ad-hoc manner. In addition, the services become much more fluid, decentralized and complex. The paper discusses in a nutshell a wide-range of IoT application perspectives in the limited context of architectural designing of Smart buildings.
Key words: IoT applications, Architectural designing, Smart buildings
1.0.Internet of Things: An Introduction
The term Internet of Things (IoT) refers to this internet-based architecture which facilitates the exchange of services, information and data between billions of objects, mostly smart. It was first introduced by Kevin Ashton in 1998 and has obtained a lot of
attention in the industry and academia (http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?4986). In some texts, it is addressed as the Internet of Everything (IoE) to emphasize the ubiquitous usage of the internet-enabled objects. IoT provides the connection between all these objects to facilitate and make people’s lives more comfortable and efficient in all situations. Within this approach different aspects of both hardware and software solutions work together to realize the Internet-of-Things paradigm. A world where the real, digital and the virtual are converging to create smart environments that make energy, transport, cities and many other areas more intelligent (https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/internet-things-iot-revolution-smart-environment-rahul-gaikwad). Internet of Things is refer to the general idea of things, especially everyday objects, that are readable, recognisable, locatable, addressable through information sensing device and/or controllable via the Internet, irrespective of the communication means (whether via RFID, wireless LAN, wide area networks, or other means) (Figure 1).
The Internet will continue to become ever more central to everyday life and work, but there is a new but complementary vision for an Internet of Things (IoT), which will connect billions of objects – ‘things’ like sensors, monitors, and RFID devices – to the Internet at a scale that far outstrips use of the Internet as we know it, and will have enormous social and economic implications. The Internet of Things (IOT) describes a worldwide network of intercommunicating devices. Internet of Things (IoT) has reached many different players and gained further recognition. Out of the potential Internet of Things application areas, Smart Cities (and regions), Smart Car and mobility, Smart Home and assisted living, Smart Industries, Public safety, Energy and Environmental protection, Agriculture and Tourism as part of a future ‘IoT Ecosystem’ haveacquired high attetion(https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/internet-things-iot-revolution-smart-environment-rahul-gaikwad). Internet of Things is a new revolution of the Internet. Objects make themselves recognizable and they obtain intelligence by making or enabling context related decisions thanks to the fact that they can communicate information about themselves. They can access information that has been aggregated by other things, or they can be components of complex services (https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/internet-things-iot-revolution-smart-environment-rahul-gaikwad).
2.0.Enabling Technology for IOT
The Internet of Things is much more than machine to machine communication, wireless sensor networks, sensor networks, 2G/3G/4G,GSM,GPRS,RFID, WI-FI, GPS, microcontroller, microprocessor etc. These are considered as being the enabling technologies that make “Internet of Things” applications possible. Enabling technologies for the Internet of Things are considered and can be grouped into three categories: (1) technologies that enable “things” to acquire contextual information, (2) technologies that enable “things” to process contextual information, and (3) technologies to improve security and privacy. The first two categories can be jointly understood as functional building blocks required building “intelligence” into “things”, which are indeed the features that differentiate the IoT from the usual Internet. The third category is not a functional but rather a de facto requirement, without which the penetration of the IoT would be severely reduced (Vermesan and Friess, 2014). The Internet of Things is not a single technology, but it is a mixture of different hardware and software technology.
There is a heterogeneous mix of communication technologies, which need to be adapted in order to address the needs of IoT applications such as energy efficiency, speed, security, and reliability. In this context, it is possible that the level of diversity will be scaled to a number a manageable connectivity technologies that address the needs of the IoT applications, are adopted by the market, they have already proved to be serviceable, supported by a strong technology alliance. Examples of standards in these categories include wired and wireless technologies like Ethernet, WI-FI, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, and GPRS (Vermesan and Friess, 2014; Vermesan and Friess, 2013) . The key enabling technologies for the Internet of Things is presented in Figure 2.
2.1 IoT Characteristics
The fundamental characteristics of the IoT are as follows (Vermesan and Friess, 2014; http://www.reloade.com/blog/ 2013/12/6characteristics with in-internet-things iot. php: :Interconn-ectivity:With regard to the IoT, anything can be interconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure. Things-related services: The IoT is capable of providing thing-related services within the constraints of things, such as privacy protection and semantic consistency between physical things and their associated virtual things. In order to provide thing-related services within the constraints of things, both the technologies in physical world and information world will change.
with in the constraints of things, such as privacy protection and semantic consistency between physical things and their associated virtual things. In order to provide thing-related services within the constraints of things, both the technologies in physical world and information world will change.
2.2 IoT Gateways and Networks
Massive volume of data will be produced by these tiny sensors and this requires a robust and high performance wired or wireless network infrastructure as a transport medium. Current networks, often tied with very different protocols, have been used to support machine-to-machine (M2M) networks and their applications. With demand needed to serve a wider range of IOT services and applications such as high speed transactional services, context-aware applications, etc, multiple networks with various technologies and access protocols are needed to work with each other in a heterogeneous configuration. These networks can be in the form of a private, public or hybrid models and are built to support the communication requirements for latency, bandwidth or security. Various gateways (microcontroller, microprocessor) and gateway networks (WI-FI, GSM, GPRS…) are shown in Figure 2.
2.3 IoT Architecture
IoT architecture consists of different layers of technologies supporting IoT. It serves to illustrate how various technologies relate to each other and to communicate the scalability, modularity and configuration of IoT deployments in different scenarios. Figure 3 shows detailed architecture of IoT.
The functionality of each layer is described below (Vermesan andFriess,2014; http://www.ida.gov.sg/~/media/ /Files/Infocomm%20Landscape/Technology/Technology Roadmap/InternetOfThings.pdf: A. smart device / sensor layer: The lowest layer is made up of smart objects integrated with sensors. The sensors enable the interconnection of the physical and digital worlds allowing real-time information to be collected and processed. Sensors are grouped according to their unique purpose such as environmental sensors, body sensors, home appliance sensors and vehicle telematics sensors, etc. Most sensors require connectivity to the sensor gateways. This can be in the form of a Local Area Network (LAN) such as Ethernet and Wi-Fi connections or Personal Area Network (PAN) such as ZigBee, Bluetooth and Ultra Wideband (UWB). For sensors that do not require connectivity to sensor aggregators, their connectivity to backend servers/applications can be provided using Wide Area Network (WAN) such as GSM, GPRS and LTE. Sensors that use low power and low data rate connectivity, they typically form networks commonly known as wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
2.4 Application Areas
The IoT application covers “smart” environments/spaces in domains such as: Transportation, Building, City, Lifestyle, Retail, Agriculture, Factory, Supply chain, Emergency, Healthcare, User interaction, Culture and tourism, Environment and Energy. Potential applications of the IoT are numerous and diverse, permeating into practically all areas of every-day life of individuals, enterprises, and society as a whole. The IoT application covers “smart” environments/spaces in domains such as: Transportation, Building, City, Lifestyle, Retail, Agriculture, Factory, Supply chain, Emergency, Healthcare, User interaction, Culture and tourism, Environment and Energy. Presented below are some of the IOT application areas (Vermesan and Friess, 2014) (Figure 4).
- IOsL (Internet of smart living): Remote Control Appliances: Switching on and off remotely appliances to avoid accidents and save energy, Weather: Displays outdoor weather conditions such as humidity, temperature, pressure, wind speed and rain levels with ability to transmit data over long distances, Smart Home Appliances: Refrigerators with LCD screen telling what’s inside, food that’s about to expire, ingredients you need to buy and with all the information available on a Smartphone app. Washing machines allowing you to monitor the laundry remotely, and. Kitchen ranges with interface to a Smartphone app allowing remotely adjustable temperature control and monitoring the oven’s self-cleaning feature.
- IOsC (Internet of Smart Cities): Structural Health: Monitoring of vibrations and material conditions in buildings, bridges and historical monuments, Lightning: intelligent and weather adaptive lighting in street lights, Safety: Digital video monitoring, fire control management, public announcement systems, Transportation: Smart Roads and Intelligent High-ways with warning messages and diversions according to climate conditions and unexpected events like accidents or traffic jams, Smart Parking: Real-time monitoring of parking spaces availability in the city making residents able to identify and reserve the closest available spaces, Waste Management: Detection of rubbish levels in containers to optimize the trash collection routes. Garbage cans and recycle bins with RFID tags allow the sanitation staff to see when garbage has been put out.
- IOsE (Internet of Smart Environment): Air Pollution monitoring: Control of CO2 emissions of factories, pollution emitted by cars and toxic gases generated in farms, Forest Fire Detection: Monitoring of combustion gases and preemptive fire conditions to define alert zones, Weather monitoring: weather conditions monitoring such as humidity, temperature, pressure, wind speed and rain, Earthquake Early Detection, Water Quality: Study of water suitability in rivers and the sea for eligibility in drinkable use.
- IOsI (Internet of smart industry): Explosive and Hazardous Gases: Detection of gas levels and leakages in industrial environments, surroundings of chemical factories and inside mines, Monitoring of toxic gas and oxygen levels inside chemical plants to ensure workers and goods safety, Monitoring of water, oil and gas levels in storage tanks and Cisterns.
- IOsH (Internet of smart health): Patients Surveillance: Monitoring of conditions of patients inside hospitals and in old people’s home, Medical Fridges: Control of conditions inside freezers storing vaccines, medicines and organic elements, Fall Detection: Assistance for elderly or disabled people living independent,
- IOsE (Internet of Smart Energy): Smart Grid: Energy consumption monitoring and management, Wind Turbines/ Power house: Monitoring and analyzing the flow of energy from wind turbines & power house, and two-way communication with consumers’ smart meters to analyze consumption patterns, Power Supply Controllers: Controller for AC-DC power supplies that determines required energy, and improve energy efficiency with less energy waste for power supplies related to computers, telecommunications, and consumer electronics applications, Photovoltaic Installations: Monitoring and optimization of performance in solar energy plants.
- IOsA (Internet of Smart Agriculture): Green Houses: Control micro-climate conditions to maximize the production of fruits and vegetables and its quality, Compost: Control of humidity and temperature levels in alfalfa, hay, straw, etc. to prevent fungus and other microbial contaminants, Animal Farming/Tracking: Location and identification of animals grazing in open pastures or location in big stables, Study of ventilation and air quality in farms and detection of harmful gases from excrements.
3.0.Design Principles for IOT Architecture
This section previews possible extensions to the current work. It will require substantial effort to address the necessary level of details. It may require also splitting the work by market segments (i.e. Smart Grid, Smart home, healthcare, smart city, IT’S. It is likely that healthy development of IoT technologies and mandating the use of Open specifications will foster markets in Europe. “Open specifications” that are considered applicable from a CEN/CENELEC/ETSI point of view comply with the following criteria: The specification is developed and/or approved, and maintained by a collaborative consensus- based process; Such process is transparent; Materially affected and interested parties are not excluded from such process; The specification is subject to RAND/FRAND Intellectual Property Right (IPR) policies in accordance with the “EU Competition rules”; The specification is published and made available to the general public under reasonable terms (including for reasonable fee or for free).
The IoT should be capable of connecting billions or trillions of heterogeneous devices through the internet, so there is a critical need for a flexible layered architecture. The IoT domain encloses a wide range of standardized or unstandardized technologies, software platforms and diverse applications. Though a reference model can be considered for IoT, most likely several reference architectures will coexist (Vermesan, et al, 2011). Here, we define the architecture as a framework in which the things, the people and the cloud services are combined to facilitate application tasks. Therefore, the reference model for the IoT can schematically be depicted as in Figure 5
Based on machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity concept, fuelled by the development of smart sensors and actuators, together with communication technologies (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, RFID) and supported by cloud computing technologies, IoT becomes a reality and its goal is to make “things” more aware, interactive and efficient for a better and safer world. Therefore, any smart device that can be addressed by means of a communication protocol can be part of the IoT. According to Gubbi (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21584547), IoT is composed out of three main parts, linked by communication networks: physical devices (things) with an identity that can be accessed, monitored and controlled; middleware, the layer that links the physical world with the virtual world; monitoring and control/information systems.
The value of a network is given by the following equation: Network value = #Connections2. Considering the tremendous number of things that can be connected in an IB, the importance of IoT within IB is of great significance. Several architectures to implement IoT are implemented in. Nevertheless: all of them can be synthesized in a simplified manner as in Figure 6
The European IoT research cluster gathered under a strategic research roadmap the technology enablers and the issues that need to be addressed towards achieving the actual goals of IoT concept (https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21584547).
4.0.Smart Buildings: The Concept
Smart Building solutions give building owners, operators, and other key decision-makers unprecedented visibility into equipment operations and building use courtesy of the real-time data generated by the sensors, monitors, and controls in a Smart Building solution conguration. The development of a Smart Building is a process of investment and transformation in facility management. The process is framed by the integration of advanced controls and automation technologies that utilize analytics and data management within IT architecture. There is no off-the-shelf deployment of technologies in a Smart Building. In existing buildings, technologies are deployed as retorts or extensions to existing infrastructure to increase the sophistication of the energy management equipment in the facility. The most common problems within traditional buildings include lighting, parking, lack of processes and controls, poor services delivery, complex and redundant processes, high energy consumption/costs, and improper waste management – to name just a few. As these facilities are transformed into Smart Buildings, they become increasingly instrumented, controlled, and automated, and operators and key decision makers rely more heavily on the analytics and data management aspects of Smart Building solutions to make the information from the building systems actionable. This, in turn, drives down costs, energy consumption, and the facility’s environmental footprint. Figure 7 illustrates the process of transforming an existing facility into a Smart Building.
Information technology has a key role to play in the development and operations of dynamic Smart Buildings. From an energy perspective, Smart Buildings become an important asset for the Smart Grid and help support the Smart City goal of improved efficiency, in terms of reducing energy consumption and increasing energy reliability.
4.1.Design Approaches for Smart Building Systems
With the rapid advancements in processor technologies and hardware platforms, embedded network systems have drawn a lot of attention in the IT research community. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), are one of the realizations of networked embedded systems. Subsequently, with the significant research effort both from academia and industry, the WSN combined with IP technology are becoming the future of embedded internet. Millions of tiny devices connected to the internet are taking the pervasive computing to the next level. This line of research envisions a seamless integration of day to day commodities with the internet, namely the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT technologies provide an infrastructure for wide range of applications such as industry automation, vehicular ad-hoc sensor networks and smart building systems. Among these, smart building systems are becoming more and more vital due to the improvement they provide to the quality of life. One of the key components of a smart building system is a WSN, which provides the necessary information to the smart building system, allowing it to control and monitor the physical environment. Frequently WSN operate in isolation but towards their collaboration in the IoT technology, interconnectivity between two or more networks is a challenging task. Recent research and development have incorporated IP technology with WSN, allowing bridging the gap between heterogeneous networks. Without the use of IP protocols, “smart” gateways which are capable of interconnecting different protocols could be used to overcome the problem of isolation.
4.2.WSN System Architecture for Smart Building Application
Wireless sensor networks are being used widely in smart building applications. Multiple sensors deployed around an area can transfer diverse information of their resources to the system while other sensors can receive data to drive appliances connected to them. The key requirement for a smart building is that all sensors and actuators are accessible over the network from humans or other devices in an efficient and reliable way. The gateway is represented and implemented by a node connected via a serial port to a computer, which is connected to the Web or to other networks either wired or wireless. The main architecture of our system is presented in Figure 8.
The IoT applications cover the building of smart cities, the set up of smart environment, the provision of smart public services, the plan of e-Health, and the building of smart home/office, etc. Smart campuses or smart cities are trendy applications in the paradigm of the IoT. The concept of “Green Building” implies the proposition of systems which are environment friendly or simply installing low power consumption systems.
4.3. IoT Application in Green Building
The concept of Green Building involves use of renewable sources as energy source for household activities by installing systems like rain water harvesting, solar water heater, etc. The construction of smart building will adopt advanced Information Communication Technologies to automatically monitor and control every facility on campus. The benefits gained from building a smart building include systems becoming more efficient and the energy consumed is minimized. Such efforts are also recognized as constructing a “Green Building”. Using small embedded systems connected to internet we can monitor and control the whole building hence leading to smart building which may also be referred as green building where there is not actually zero energy consumption but highly reduced consumption of energy.
4.3.1.Benefits of the IoT Platform for Smart Buildings
The IoT Platform provides the first purpose built IoT platform designed to meet the unique needs of today’s connected world. You can deliver powerful, new smart building IoT solutions in a fraction of the time of other approaches. The IoT Platform can help you in the following manner:
- Easily collect and manage data from people, sensors, connected equipment and existing enterprise systems and external system information
- Quickly build and bring to market new innovative IoT applications at 10 times the speed of other approaches with our rapid application development environment and drag and drop mash-up builder
- Utilize big data and analytics to provide new insights and recommendations to drive better decisions
- Provide facility managers and real estate executives role based access to easily visualize data, receive alert notifications and take action on insights and recommendations across all relevant building operations
- Leverage the Thing-Worx Marketplace and partner ecosystem to market and sell your IoT smart building solutions and services
4.2.Smart Buildings through IoT and Big Data Analytics
The roll-out of the Internet of Things (IoT) enables organizations to make existing buildings smart. Technology is no longer a barrier. Low-cost wireless sensors can measure almost anything today and new wireless technology (e.g. LoRa) facilitates the installation of these sensors without the need for power, cabling or even WIFI connectivity. The data captured from connected buildings can be used to:
- Enhance building performance
- Optimize resource usage
- Target service delivery
- Improve the employee experience in the workplace
Smart buildings start with smart scenarios. IoT big data can help you measure ongoing performance, provide real-time guidance to users and predict outcomes through pattern recognition and trends analysis. The trick is to gather the right data for what you want to optimize for. Big data integration and analytics is a key to achieving value. Integrated analysis of data from sensors, IWMS/CAFM software, and other sources allows facility services and interventions to be driven by the realities on the ground, instead of being executed according to pre-defined schedules.
5.Role of IT Services Providers of Smart Building
Setting up a Smart Building is different from managing it. Regulations and administrative bodies can push the agenda of setting up Smart Buildings, but if the buildings are not managed properly, cohesively, and intelligently – i.e., using ICT platforms and technologies – then it is practically as good as not having one. The role of IT services providers or systems integrators is one of the most critical in this entire value chain. Systems integrators carry a holistic view of Smart Buildings, and are well positioned to consult and collaborate with organizations from inception to delivery, and the post-delivery operational management phase. Systems integrators are quailed to deploy and manage devices, communications, networks, and NoC, all of which are critical components of Smart Buildings. The key differences between a normal building and a Smart Building are the collaboration, automation, and intelligence aspects that are integral to the latter. Underlying these differences is a core IT layer. The idea is to have a single, integrated view of a variety of electrical, mechanical, civil, and IT components. IT platforms enable this, supporting smooth management of the above component’s performance. There are multiple examples of IT services providers deploying and managing sophisticated platforms to manage Smart Buildings. One of the other major factors distinguishing systems integrators from their civil and electrical counterparts is their ability to convert or transform a normal building into a Smart Building.
5.1.Intelligent Buildings Using IoT Technologies
Intelligent buildings (IB) have received increasing interest over the last 25 years, as various IB technologies have been developed (Clements, 2013). Various bodies took the responsibility to define IB. Some of them, like European Intelligent Building Group (UK) or Intelligent Building Institute (USA), are focused on IB from performance perspective (Sinopoli, 2006). Thus, the focus from this point of view is on user comfort, capability to adapt quickly to changing needs of the users, efficient management of resources and minimization of life-cycle costs. Engineers must decide which technologies should be considered such as to meet these challenges. Here the focus is on providing more attractive administrative services at lower costs, as well as flexible and economical responses to sociological changes (Harrison et al, 2005). A third perspective is given by the Chinese IB Design Standard GB/T50314-2000, where IB is seen from technological point of view (building automation, office automation, communication automation, safety, and convenience) (Wang, 2010). Despite various definitions, IB should be seen from a multi-industrial standpoint, involving the right combination of architecture, structure, information technology, automation, environment and energy, services and facility management such as to minimize life-cycle costs, maximize comfort and adapt properly to cultural stimuli (Wang, 2010; Rutishauser et al, 2005. Intelligent architecture concerns with intelligent design to meet cultural and contextual requirements, with proper use of IT and smart technology, as well as with optimal building exploitation and cost-effective maintenance over its life-time (Intelligent Building Research, 2005). This might also include intelligent and responsive facades. Facility management looks for the best financial management for maintenance, rebuild and renovation, for the best space utilization, for the best daily operational services and for maximizing user satisfaction (Harison et al, 2005).
From information technology and automation dimensions, IB could be analyzed in terms of technology sophistication and integration on various layers (Wang, 2010; Intelligent Building Research, 2005). The bottom layer refers to dedicated non – integrated/independent systems like security control, light control, lift control, access control, telephone, fax, internet, data and communication management, etc. The top level is the integration of all building functions to a global network of buildings, including internet and wireless protocols for data, voice and image communication, expert systems for remote optimal management of building functions, tele-monitoring and tele-service/tele-maintenance. Reconfigurable smart components and systems for IB are required at this level (Doukas et al, 2007).
5.1.1.Core Enabling Technologies for Intelligent Buildings
In a time of mounting concern for the environment and rapid population growth in regions of high economic development, there is a need to re-think the existing modes of human habitation. It is projected that within our generation, 70 % of the population will be living in urban environments. Megacities are a reality in many countries in Asia, and the expectations of quality and quantity of living space will lead to a doubling of buildings on the planet. This urbanization places an unprecedented burden on resources – water, energy, materials, and how they are processed to support habitation. The anticipated strain on planetary resources merits research into intelligent new modes of environmentally sustainable living space.
5.2.Smart Green Building
A Smart Green Building wherein human habitation is elegantly supported, should address Efficiency, Security and User Experience. Efficiency could be achieved by revolutionary use of intelligent systems in building’s material, energy and water infrastructure with conscious avoidance of negative environmental impact associated with building use. Critical systems and data require security to be designed from the outset for the hardware, software and applications. A Smart Green Building should strive to harmonize form and function, promote health, comfort and security while allowing individual expression of elegance through customization. This merits an open-minded reflection on alternative modes of building praxis and life-styles that require minimal deployment of resources to offer maximum wellbeing and shelter. This call for proposals seeks to uncover challenging problems in various engineering domains such as advanced data analytics with a focus on enabling technologies for building infrastructure and user experience and the enabling technologies including, sensors and actuators, digitation and signal processing, communications and control.
The concept of Green Building involves use of renewable sources as energy source for household activities by installing systems like rain water harvesting, solar water heater, etc. The construction of smart building will adopt advanced Information Communication Technologies to automatically monitor and control every facility on campus. The benefits gained from building a smart building include systems becoming more efficient and the energy consumed is minimized. Such efforts are also recognized as constructing a “Green Building”. The objective is realized by constructing the Internet of Things using sensors. This will reduce energy wastage in a building. It is a promising future vision which is technically rigorous, creative and an innovative pursuit for making systems more efficient.
6.0.IoT Applications in Smart Building
The Institute for Building Efficiency (http://www. institutebe.com/smart-grid-smart-building/What-is-a-Smart-Building. aspx) defines smart buildings as the buildings that can provide low cost services such as air conditioning, heating, ventilation, illumination, security, sanitation and various other services to the tenants without adversely affecting the environment. The basic motive behind the construction of smart buildings is to provide the highest level of comfort and efficiency. For example, once a tenant enters an enterprise the temperature, humidity and the lighting are adjusted according to his personalized levels of comfort, his computer and the corresponding applications (Intelligent Building Research, 2005) are turned on (Intelligent Building Research, 2005). At the same time, the interconnection of the automation systems can assist with the disaster management and provide emergency services. For example, the fire sensors can alert the ventilation system to turn of the fans hence the smoke and the fire can be contained in a specific area. The damages in the attack on Pentagon in 2001 were reduced thanks to the advanced automation system (smart building) (Intelligent Building Research, 2005). In order to do so, there is a need for added intelligence that starts from the design phase until the building gets functional. Smart buildings utilize IT for interconnection of various subsystems (usually independently operated). Such interconnection results in the sharing of information that optimizes the performance of the building, allows the building to interact with the tenant, and even be connected with other adjacent smart buildings.
The Part – II will be continued in the next edition