Today’s global talk is about climate change and adoptability. Climate change is the effect of Global Warming which is accelerated due to more carbon emissions. The so called development activities like mining the ores, coal, sand and minerals, converting the forest lands and water bodies in to other uses, increase of transportations and increase of industries paves way for emissions of CO, CO2, methane and other green house gases. These gases one way other way influence the climate change. Already the world is facing effect of climate change as severe flood and drought, disappearance of many numbers of flora and fauna, loss of agriculture lands, migration to urban centers and new diseases.
United Nation,G5,G8 and G20 countries often conduct world summit on Conservation of Environment and Natural resources for which the most important action plan is to implement the environmental sound technologies to reduce the green house gas emissions in all sectors like Industries, Agriculture and Transportation. Construction industries are one where the lot of Eco friendly materials and technology shall be implemented to reduce the carbon emissions which are called as Green Construction Techniques. In the conventional system Green Technologies refer to replacing the existing technologies to reduce the carbon emissions. That means the adaptability to be followed in the industries for managing the climate change effect. But in the Climate change Resilience, the holistic approach from policies, governance and management structures at a national level as well as local level. This paper deals the effect of climate change and the need of Green Technologies for Climate Resilience affordable Housing.
The so called conventional methods of developments has either depleted or polluted the resources which lead to unsustainable situations for future. So the new technologies shall be linked with reuse and recycle of waste materials, able to utilize less electrical resources and more the renewable resources.
What is Climate Resilience ?
Climate resilience can be generally defined as the capacity for a socio-ecological system to: (1) absorb stresses and maintain function in the face of external stresses imposed upon it by climate change and (2) adapt, reorganize, and evolve into more desirable configurations that improve the sustainability of the society.
Here in the construction sector it refers to not only the green technologies like less carbon emitting materials or technologies. It involves from selection of site, fixing number of floors, planning and design of buildings selection of materials and construction technologies involved for the better livelihood. In short Climate Resilience is not one intervention but lot of interventions called as holistic approach through which adaptation is achieved and so the green house gas emissions are reduced. In other words Green Buildings or Green Constructions technologies already exist through which the action plan is to be evolved for sustainable development.
Effect of Climate Change
The effects of climate change are already being witnessed by the world. The effects are listed below.
- Change of rainfall pattern
- More rain in short period
- Uneven rainfall within a Geographical area.
- Frequent drought and Flood
- Migration from rural area
- Increasing unplanned urbanization
- Increasing Industrialization
- Depletion of the resources
- Pollution and degradation of the Environment
- Accelerating the effect of climate change
- Increase of Unemployment due to loss of resources.
Causes of Climate Change
The politicians, policy makers in the Governance, the technocrats and people shall understand the ill effects of climate change and causes of climate change. Then only the need of Green technologies shall be realized. Today’s technology available for all these development activities are conventional one which are depleting the resources fast and also polluting the land and water resources. The methods and approaches available and utilizable are given below.
Resources depletion approach
Un scientific approach
More GHG emission approach
Un sustainable approach
End of pipe approach
Un ethical approach
The new approaches or tools needed for the green constructions are not related with only one single technology. It depends on the holistic approaches. This approach is also called as listed below.
Eco system approach
River Basin approach
Resources conservation approach
Clean Development ( Mechanism) approach
Green Building approch
Bio Remediation approach
Eco system approach
Learn what an ecosystem is, how energy and matter move through ecosystems, and what makes an ecosystem stable.
- An ecosystem consists of a community of organisms together with their physical environment.
- Ecosystems can be of different sizes and can be marine, aquatic, or terrestrial. Broad categories of terrestrial ecosystems are called biomes.
- In ecosystems, both matter and energy are conserved. Energy flows through the system—usually from light to heat—while matter is recycled.
- Ecosystems with higher biodiversity tend to be more stable with greater resistance and resilience in the face of disturbances, disruptive events.
a) Stability and dynamics of ecosystems
Ecosystems are dynamic systems, and a static ecosystem would be a dead ecosystem-just as a static cell would be a dead cell. As we discussed above, energy is constantly flowing through an ecosystem and chemical nutrients are continually being recycled. At higher levels of organization, organisms are dying and being born, populations are fluctuating in their numbers, and climate patterns are varying seasonally and in less predictable ways.
b) Equilibrium and disturbance
Equilibrium is the steady state of an ecosystem, in which its composition and identity remain generally constant despite fluctuations in physical conditions and the makeup of the biotic community. Ecosystems may be knocked out of equilibrium by disturbances, disruptive events that affect their composition.
Some disturbances are a result of natural processes. For example, fire is a disturbance that can be caused by lightning in a prairie or forest ecosystem. Other disturbances are the result of human activities. Examples include acid rainfall, deforestation, algal blooms, and the introduction of invasive species.
Different ecosystems may respond differently to the same disturbance; one may recover rapidly, and another may recover more slowly or not at all.
c) Resistance and resilience
Ecologists sometimes use two parameters to describe how an ecosystem responds to disturbance. These parameters are resistance and resilience. The ability of an ecosystem to remain at equilibrium in spite of disturbances is called resistance. How readily an ecosystem returns to equilibrium after being disturbed is called resilience. Some ecologists consider resistance to be an element of resilience one that acts on a short timescale.
Many ecologists think that the biodiversity of an ecosystem plays a key role in stability. For example, if there were just one plant species with a particular role in an ecosystem, a disturbance that harms that one species say, a drought for a drought-sensitive species might have a severe impact on the ecosystem as a whole. In contrast, if there were several plant species with similar functional roles, there would be a better chance of one of them being drought-tolerant and helping the ecosystem as a whole survive the drought period.
Ecosystem resistance and resilience are important when we consider the effects of disturbances caused by human activity. If a disturbance is severe enough, it may change an ecosystem beyond the point of recovery push the ecosystem into a zone where it is no longer resilient. A disturbance of this sort could lead to permanent alteration or loss of the ecosystem.
River Basin approach
Rivers are the sources for all development. Our culture was developed from the banks of the River Basin. River Basin a physical boundary of any River or sub stream which get water resources from the ridge to valley. The resources available in the River Basin are useful for all development activities. These activities one way or other deplete the resources and pollute the resources. So River Basin approach or Management insists to reduce to utilize the scarce materials and to eliminate the pollution level in the basin.
“Integrated river basin management (IRBM) is the process of coordinating conservation, management and development of water, land and related resources across sectors within a given river basin, in order to maximize the economic and social benefits derived from water resources in an equitable manner while preserving and distribution”.
- More sand is depleted from the River Basin which stop the flow of rain water and reduce the Ground water recharging
- All coarse aggregates and Bricks are source from the River Basin
- The construction debris’s are dumped in the river basin either in river or lakes.
- River basins are encroached for housing, government buildings, bus stands and many other building activities.
How this approach help towards Climate Resilient
River basin is source for all development activities including construction sector. The materials for the construction sector like Sand, Raw materials of cement and steel, Bricks, aggregates are managed from the natural sources available within the River Basin. The energy flow in the River Basins only helped the human society for their development. The present approaches are seriously affected the River basin functions. So the River Basin Approach always paves ways for going towards Green construction Technologies to safe guard the River Basins.
The seven key elements to a successful IRBM initiative are:
- A long-term vision for the river basin, agreed to by all the major stakeholders.
- Integration of policies, decisions and costs across sectoral interests such as industry, agriculture, urban development, navigation, fisheries management and conservation, including through poverty reduction strategies.
- Strategic decision-making at the river basin scale, which guides actions at sub-basin or local levels.
- Effective timing, taking advantage of opportunities as they arise while working within a strategic framework.
- Active participation by all relevant stakeholders in well-informed and transparent planning and decision-making.
- Adequate investment by governments, the private sector, and civil society organizations in capacity for river basin planning and participation processes.
- A solid foundation of knowledge of the river basin and the natural and socio-economic forces that influence it.
Having these key elements as guidance one can plan for the Green Constructions for Sustainable Planning.
Green Construction Techniques
A review of climate-related vulnerabilities at the regional level, and prioritization of design, construction, and operation strategies to increase resilience and facilitate climate adaptation.
The majority of efforts to address climate change through green building are focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This is reflected in the current U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system and TERI rating system.
LEED is developed by USGBC and GRIHA is an acronym for Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment. GRIHA is a Sanskrit word meaning – ‘Abode’. Human Habitats (buildings) interact with the environment in various ways.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is the most widely used green building rating system in the world. Available for virtually all building, community and home project types, LEED provides a framework to create healthy, highly efficient and cost-saving green buildings. LEED certification is a globally recognized symbol of sustainability achievement.
- 2.2 million +square feet is LEED certified every day with more than 90,000 projects using LEED.
- Flexible LEED works for all building types anywhere.
- LEED is in over 165 countries and territories. Sustainable LEED buildings save energy, water, resources, generate less waste and support human health.
- Value LEED buildings attract tenants, cost less to operate and boost employee productivity and retention.
Projects pursuing LEED certification earn points across several categories, including energy use and air quality. Based on the number of points achieved, a project then earns one of four LEED rating levels: Certified, Silver, Gold or Platinum. The rating points under LEED are given below.
- Certified – 40-49 points earned
- Silver – 50-59 points earned
- Gold – 60-79 points earned
- Platinum – 80+ points earned
Green Rating For Integrated Habitat Assessment ( GRIHA)
GRIHA Council, is mandated to promote development of buildings and habitats in India through GRIHA. GRIHA Council an independent platform for the interaction on scientific and administrative issues related to sustainable habitats in the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi) with support from MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India) along with a handful of experts in the sustainability of built environment from across the country.
All buildings, which are in the design stage and have built up area more than 2,500 m2, are eligible for certification under GRIHA. Building types include, but are not limited to offices, retail spaces, institutional buildings, hotels, hospital buildings, health-care facilities, residences, and multi-family high-rise buildings.
GRIHA V 3 rating system consists of 34 criteria coveringvarious subjects such as sustainable site planning, energy and water optimization, sustainable building materials, waste management and building operations & maintenance. There are bonus points for strategies implemented over and above the listed GRIHA Criteria.
GRIHA is a 100-point system consisting of some core points, which are mandatory, while the rest are optional. Different levels of certification (one star to five stars) are awarded based on the number of points earned. The minimum points required for certification are 50.
Part of the reason why buildings designed with LEED or GRIHA credits and energy efficient systems in mind are more resilient to the affects of natural disasters is that these designs consider a buildings peak performance in response to temperature changes, precipitation, wind loads and other environmental factors that become magnified and dangerous in natural disasters. This simple consciousness about how a building responds to these factors changes the way in which it will perform when they surpass the assumptions with which they were designed. At least, in this case, the building has some measures to deal with these fluctuations, such as rainwater collection or diversion during floods.
Buildings beyond ratings
Ratings may be useful for motivation and rewards. These two methods of Green Building construction activities have many constraints. From registration under Green Buildings to completion lot of practical difficulties are there. But in my view, beyond the ratings the green building concept shall be disseminated to gross root level even for small housing buildings less than 200 sq m. So even a small group houses or individual houses or any construction activities shall be guided as Green Construction is the need of hour.
The document serves as a guide on the “regional-level and prioritize design, construction and operation strategies that increase resilience and facilitate climate adaptation”. (via report) Adaptation, in this regard, means acknowledging that trends change. The report follows this two-fold strategy of adaptation and resilience by stating that current design practices only consider historic trends, relying on them to remain stable, when it is obvious that fluctuations in the environment have become increasing unpredictable and severe.
Building green is no longer enough, it is time to build resilient
Green living has often been about technology; about smart grids and hybrid cars and solar panels. But it is also about simplicity and low tech, about walkable communities and bicycles. One feature we often talk about is how our walkable communities and older buildings are resilient; they can cope better when the power goes out, and you can walk to the store when the car is out of fuel.
Alex Wilson, founder of Building Green, which I consider to be the definitive green building website, is now acknowledging the need for Resilient Design, worrying about drought, power outages and even terrorism. He concludes:
It turns out that many of the strategies needed to achieve resilience–such as really well-insulated homes that will keep their occupants safe if the power goes out or interruptions in heating fuel occur–are exactly the same strategies we have been promoting for years in the green building movement. The solutions are largely the same, but the motivation is one of life-safety, rather than simply doing the right thing. We need to practice green building, because it will keep us safe a powerful motivation and this may be the way to finally achieve widespread adoption of such measures.
Building design principles
Site selection for building purposes shall be as per Town and country planning rules. Approved sites are prioritized rather than agriculture lands. When we talk about housing, majority of the buildings were affected up to first floor during the Chennai flood. Though this incident was extra ordinary one, the ayacut areas of hundreds of lakes have been converted as housing sites. Nowhere in the sites fixed the Maximum Water Level for fixing Basement level. For the Climate Resilient affordable Housing the following guidelines are to be followed.
- The soil investigation shall be done and as per the results the foundation design shall be adopted as per the number of floors and safe bearing capacity (SBC).
- The Structural designs shall be done considering the seismic zone category.
- The structural designs shall be properly decided as per the floors and suitable foundations and super structure shall be selected.
- The Ventilations and lightings shall be effectively done as per climatic conditions of the region.
- The earths excavated shall be used for landscaping of some other use without carrying away from the sites.
- Affordable sites always reflects the cost factor and so the cost estimate shall also be economical and eco friendly.
- Woods shall be given priorities for furniture making instead of Aluminum, PVC and Steel furniture since wood is a renewable resources.
- The waste water generated shall be well treated and reused The solid wastes generated shall be segregated and composted and reused Shall be designed for structural stability and durability.
- The various components of the buildings shall be selected from local sources.
- The power for the buildings shall be designed to economical and so the electrical system shall be used with led materials and clubbed with either wind or solar energies.
- The flooring and finishing materials shall be as per the climatic conditions and shall be avoided for more carbon foot print materials.Rain water harvesting arrangements shall be implanted.
- Greenery development in all round building
- Housekeeping and maintenance shall be easy and costeffective
Designing buildings to effectively meet the conditions and realities of a Post Carbon, Climate-Changed world will require a shift in our current understanding of what constitutes good building design and sound building practice. Many of the practices that we now take for granted, like cladding our buildings in curtain wall building envelopes, in future, may no longer be economically feasible. Use of Cement concrete itself leads to more carbon emissions since manufacture of cement produce more GHG emissions. That means reducing cement in buildings is given top priority. But that is not possible. So Lauri baker the Green concept and low cost building expert implemented many such buildings reducing ce-ment and also using Bamboo construction as composite buildings.
To address these needed changes in building design and construction strategies and techniques, we propose the following building design principles for designing and constructing buildings in a post-carbon, climate responsive building environment: Similarly the waste water generated from the buildings shall be reused or recycled to own use. The solid wastes generated at the campus shall be recycled to compost and used for home gardens.
Use low carbon-input materials and systems
Any materials and systems that require either significant amounts of energy, or are derived from oil by-products in their manufacture, will become economically uncompetitive because of the relative increase in energy costs on the down side of the peak oil curve, as well as the probable additional costs associated with potential future carbon cap-and-trade regulations or tariffs. Materials such as wood and low-energy input masonry should be considered as more appropriate building materials. Moreover, the use of wood as a building material will be a very effective strategy for sequestering carbon as part of future regional, national, or international carbon sequestration strategies and policies.
Design and plan buildings for low external energy inputs for ongoing buildings
Buildings shall be designed to be highly energy efficient and include the use of natural ventilation and air circulation. Where required, lighting systems should use LED task lighting in combination with natural day-lighting. Design to allow for natural ventilation and simple low energy mechanical systems. It shall be considered based on the climate of that geographical area.
Design buildings for maximum day-lighting
Daylight will be the primary source of lighting for buildings in a post-carbon city, so buildings should be designed to make the most of daylight for internal lighting. Because the pressure to reduce the overall surface area of glazing in building envelopes to reduce energy loss will be significant, the use of daylight will become of strategic importance in the design of building form. Narrower floor plates, internal courtyards, and atrium spaces are good examples of possible daylight effective strategies. Tamil Nadu’s Chettinad houses and the buildings constructed before the year 1960 are the best examples of day lighting.
Design “generic buildings” for future flexibility of use
Because energy costs will be higher in the post carbon city, both construction materials and the construction process will be relatively more expensive than they are now. These higher costs of construction will create an impetus for building owners to design for future flexibility in their building designs, so that later renovations and alteration can be undertaken in the most cost effective manner. The most effective strategies for designing for future flexibility are the use of modularity and standardization in the planning of program spaces. Modularity provides for building spaces to be multiples of one another, and standardization of spaces aims for the provision of “common denominator” spaces that can be used for many overlapping uses. Buildings should be designed for both first and future uses. Form should not “follow function” but instead follow many future functions.
Design for Durability and Robustness
To maximize the future resilience of buildings, buildings should be designed for durability and robustness. Use materials and construction methods must be durable in the face of more energetic weather, and increasing number of significant weather events that increasing climate change will produce.
Design for use of local materials and products
Resilient cities will need to be much more localized in their use of materials and products. The increased cost of energy will dramatically increase transportation-related costs of non-local materials. That should in turn create a greater demand for locally produced materials and products for building construction.
Design and plan for low energy input constructability
Design and plan for buildings that can be built efficiently by manual labour, and that do not require oil-fuelled machines and systems requiring significant quantities of fuel for operation. As the cost of fuel increases as a result of the price pressures of Peak Oil, energy intensive construction techniques could become be less economically effective, and the costs of manual labour will potentially be less a less critical a factor in selecting construction techniques.
Design for use of building systems that can be serviced and maintained with local materials parts and labour
Climate change and peak oil will more than likely reduce global trade, and reduce easy access to materials, products and systems from other countries. Therefore, building systems should be designed to be serviceable through a local supply of parts and labour. Achieving resilience won’t be easy and it will require investment, but it is crucial for our future wellbeing.
For example under the Hudco housing office lot of low cost Technologies such as filler roof method, rat trap method and Ferro cement panels are recommended. These technologies are developed based on locally available materials. This is also called as Lauri Baker method.
Fully green building constructions are not possible in many times due to non availability of labour. For getting ratings doing the housing construction is good. But if total ratings could not be implemented then what ever the best solutions shall be possible shall be implemented. Some of the case studies executed partly are listed below.
- Reuse of waste water for SRT Home Garden at Sulur
- Revamping of STP at Centenary Anna Library Building at Chennai
- M sand implementation for construction activities in Water Resources Development of Tamil Nadu Public Works Department.
- Filler Roof method and Rat Trap wall methods.
- Rice Husk Ash Bricks and Simple Green Habits.
Reuse of waste water for SRT Home Garden at Sulur
Mr. S.R Thangavel ex president of Sulur Special Town Panchayat has implemented waste water treatment plant in his newly constructed house at Sulur. This was designed based on Bio Ozolyte system and is working for more than four years.
- The Treatment plant was constructed as modified septic tank.
- EBB blocks are used and one small electrical aerator is fixed in EBB tank
- After settling tank Anolyte disinfection liquid is used
- Periodical water sampling analysis has been done and results are satisfactory
- Waste water is not passed to UGD
- Treated waste water is used for Garden
- Not pumping the ground water for Garden so that savingthe GW.
- Tall grown trees acting as wind barrier and sunlight barrier which stops entry of dust and heat to rooms in First floor
- Green cover has increased all round building as shown inPhotos
- Solar energy installed for running electrical motor and lights
- It has become model for local people
Revamping of Waste water Treatment plant at Centenary Anna Library Building at Chennai
Waste water treatment plant was installed at Anna Centenary library building campus when it was completed. It was designed as MBBR technology. But doe to some technical problems this plant was stopped after six months. Now PWD CE buildings has given to revamp the STP for good condition. After through study this plant has been revamped as per Bio-Ozolyte technology
- Cleaned the plants and minor repairs have done for the machines..
- 120 EBB blocks are used in the aeration tank
- After settling tank and filter tanks Anolyte disinfection liquid is used
- Periodical water sampling analysis has been done and results are satisfactory
- Waste water is not passed to UGD
- Treated waste water is used for Garden
- Not pumping the ground water for Garden so that savingthe GW.
- Green cover has increased all round building
- Going to use this treated water for flushing system in Toilets.
M sand implantation for construction activities in Water Resources Development of Tamil Nadu Public Works Department.
World bank has funded for Government of Tamil Nadu ( GOTN) for over all Irrigation development which was called as IAMWARM (Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water Resources Management) Project. More than 50 projects were under progress during the years 2011-12 in Coimbatore Region. It was a time bound project and we have to complete all these works to the time and to the International standards. Sand has become very scarce material during the year 2011 onwards. Contractors were suffered lot for getting sand from approved quarries. For Coimbatore region sand quarries distance is also far away. I was working as Executive Engineer Quality Control wing in Coimbatore region. When I go to site for checking the quality of materials and works I found that the progress was affected due to scarcity of sand. The Proverb “Need is mother of Invention” reflects in my mind and the results I suggested to my Chief Engineer for introduction of M sand (Manufacture Sand) for construction activities which is made from the granite boulders and coarse aggregates. He said go ahead for through analysis and send the scientific proposal.
Based on the instructions we team of quality control engineers visited how M sand is being manufactured and collected samples for testing. We were able get the results from the reputed HOD Dr. K. Subramaniam, Coimbatore Institute of Technology Coimbatore, They reported that M sand falls under Sand Grade 3 category which is very much suitable for construction. When we visited the manufacturing unit we found that the M sand is properly washed to eliminate the fine ( dust) particles. Normally many suppliers try to cheat the quarry dust as M sand. We have been restricted our test only for Plain Cement Concrete due to time required for other tests belong to Reinforced Cement Concrete. So our then Chief Engineer Er. K Ranganathan has recommended to use M sand for all concrete except Reinforced Cement Concrete. This is also Green Construction activities only, but we have not registered for certification and ratings.
- For the first time, M sand has been introduced in GOTN under world bank projects in Coimbatore Region
- Saved more than 6 lakh cubic meter of river sand till date.
- Reduced the sand scarcity and maintained the progress
- We have completed all our works with in stipulated time.
- M sand has been used for canal lining, culverts, PCC retaining wall and bed concrete and the results from cube tests were found excellent. The quality has not affected.
Filler Roof method and Rat Trap wall methods (Lauri Baker Method)
Waste Lauri Baker has developed lot of cost effective technologies for small scale and multi storey buildings in which two important methods are Filler roof slab and Rat Trap wall method. Filler roof slab is designed for using the locally available materials instead of Cement concrete. The excess local materials like Mangalore flat tiles and clay pots shall be used. Even the coconut shell also be used for this kind of roof.
Rat Trap wall method is useful for control of weather. The hollow part reduces heat and cold inside building. By using these kind of techniques ground plus two stories shall be constructed as load bearing as well as Multi storey buildings. Such a simple methods are available in India which are cost effective and user friendly. We need not go for ratings and certification. This system is not promoting any branded materials belong to International companies. This has shown in Photos.
Rice Husk Ash Bricks and Simple Green Habits
From rice mills huge quantity of ash is generated and dumped in low lying area. This is common scenario in and around of all rice mill. To solve this problem Mr.Gandhi GopalaKrishnan from Kanjipuram has developed bricks and marketed to local construction through the NGO NEEADS. He has been inspired to many students. This is also Green Building construction activities.
Flyash was a waste material some years back which has been dumped in low lying area. But today Fly ash Bricks are manufactured from the ash and widely used in all building activities. Regular schedule of rates has been fixed for Fly ash Bricks for every year. This is also a green building component.
Similarly the waste water has been treated well before letting out in to Ooty lake. Organic agriculture has been followed by many people for reducing the pollution level in water bodies which are all less carbon emission technologies supported for sustainable development.
When I participated in International Convention on India’s water week at New Delhi during the year 2013 I found huge quantity of food and water have been wasted in the conference. This conference has been conducted for analyzing the various options for water resources development and conservation in India. There itself wasting water was not digestible. The same way in our social functions we waste water and food.
Green construction Techniques are need of the hour for climate resilient. Normally the LEED and GRIHA methods highlight the planning and materials used for various components. Based on those methods buildings shall be rated as Certificates, Silver, Gold and Platinum in LEED system and Stars 1,2 ,3,4 and 5 in GRIHA system. They also promote list of materials to be used for their registered Green buildings.
Instead of getting ratings and stars it shall be promoted for the benefit our sustainable development. So from foundation to finishing how the low carbon materials shall be use and how the low cost technologies shall be clubbed shall be learnt from our good old system like Karaikudi( Chettinad) houses, Bamboo houses and the great Architect Lauri Baker method.
Use of Fly ash bricks, Rice ash bricks and stabilized mud blocks (Bricks made from the excavated earth) are some green construction activities.
Use of low cost technologies like filler roof method, rat trap wall method and un plastered building surface are also green constructions only.
Hence my concept is very simple. Every builder shall realize the effect of green house gases in climate change scenario and come forward to adopt green building concepts in their building not for the ratings but for the sake of conservation of our resources for the future generation sustainability.
Lastly avoiding wastage of food and water in home and other social related functions also Green habits which are also need of the hour.